History of graphic design

 

What is The defference between Art & Graphic Design ?

 


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Graphic design is ……

Using ‘exuisite corpse’ or ‘rotating corpse’ technique, lets create a collaborative artwork where we assemble evryone’s opinion of what is graphic design in a collective piece.

Elements of designs

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Line
Color
Shape
Value
Space
Size
Texture

Technical Perspective what makes a good design ?

 

Contrast

*referred to as the difference in color,size,symbolism,proportion…etc
*a lot of contrast in elements signifies a youthful approach & the little of it is more conservative.
* ‘’A design should have one element that is emphasized, most often by its dominant size’’.Mario Garcia

Balance

*it’s the placement of elements within a design’s frame so that the weight between the X&Y axes is equal
*Stefan Lorent,picture editor for ‘’lilliput and picture post’’ magazine in the 1930’s used a symmetrical grid to showcase what he called ‘’the third effect’’ .

Rhythm

it is the way design elements are combined to control movement of viewer’s eye from one element to another.

Unity

Elements within a design should all be similar in content with words and pictorial elements fitting the same mood with stylistic consistency.

Ethicalal perspective

 

Product Promotion

Examle :
Promoting cigarettes ,  alcohol and drugs.

Appropriation

it’s the fair representation and giving credit to a design when credit is due.
Ex :Shepard Dairey borrows from popular culture and his Obama poster in 2008 was criticized for using an AP photo by Manny Garcia taken in 2004.

Editorial Perspective

it’s the image selection and placement choices made when news event has more than a storyline.
Ex :Editors had difficulties putting the images of Ellan Gonzalez’s story on the cover page in 1999.

From Where Did The Story Start ?

 

the term was first used by ‘’William Addison Dwiggins’’ in 1922.
The history of graphic design may be divided into five eras :Pre-Gutenberg-Gutenberg-Industrial-Artistic and Digital.

Pre –Gutenberg (befor 1455)

*The Egyptians were the first to produce manuscripts and wall decorations combining the writings system with illustrations.
*The Greeks combined of art and nature on their buildings.

Gutenberg (1456-1760)

After the invention of the commercial printing press, less time was needed for the production of lettering by hand leading to development of typography, illustration and graphic desgn.
Germans enlarge letters and colored borders,while roman typeface was commonly used to improve credibility.

Industrial (1761-1890)


  Stream-powered prin>ng presses, mechanical typese^ng machines promoted the idea of graphic design for adver>sing & with the introduc>on of lithography, the use of image and words became easier.
Richard Hoe made development to press, so color lithograph could be easily reproduce.
Nathaniel Currier and James Lves produced over 4000 Color drawings.

Artistic (1891-1983)

•  This period merged art styles and graphic design with various technological advances including the halTone photographic screen process, color lithography, mo>on pictures and television.
•  Nine art movements had the most influence on graphic design and can be categorized as “free form” and “grid” approach.

Free From Approaches

1- Art Nouveau

•  Saved graphic design from the dark ages of the industrial era and was introduced around 1890.
•  Influenced by Asian vases pain>ngs and from Japan and Korea. Borders were marked by stylized plantlike vines and typography
. •  It was heavily cri>cized un>l the popularity of Henrie Marie and Raymond De Toulouse Lautrec.
•  In the US, Maxfield Parrish and Will Bradley produced graphic design for ads in mid 1890’s and Audery Beardsley worked in England.

 2-Dada

•  In 1916, Europe was preoccupied with horrors of World War I. DADA emerged as a cri>cal examina>on of social structures that allowed such an event to occur expressing rage with poli>cal leaders by using absurd asymmetric designs.

 3-Art Deco

•  En>tled “ The last of the total styles”, the name is taken from a 1925 exhibi>on in Paris
•  Marked with streamlined shapes and curved sans serif typographical leJering.
•  US Adver>sers didn’t like the design at the beginning cri>cizing it as “an>-u>litarian”, as they favored func>on over form.
•  Harper’s Bazaar magazine signed 10 years contract with ERTE.

 4-Pop Art

•  It combined the organic vines of Art Nouveau and the philosophy of Dada as it was rebellious against the tradi>onal cultural values.
•  The name comes from a group of London ar>sts who met in mid 1950’s.
•  Pop means “popular” and it’s a label given to objects that were considered unworthy of ar>s>c aJen>on but were part of society’s popular culture.
•  Designers: Peter Max-Andy Warhol, Jason Munn.

5-Punk

•  Appeared in the late 1970’s & ini>ally was called neo-dada .
•  Marked with placing of typography and other elements in angry, rebellious and random way.
•  It was crical of lavish spending habits.
•  First outlets of this form were underground Zines, comic books and fashion.

6-New Wave

•  “ Punk is an honest expression, while New Wave is a new packaging term,” Gary Panter.
•  Founded by the Swiss Wolfgang Weingart and American April German.
•  Marked with the ease of typography and visual manipula>on made possible by computer technology.
•  Obvious in the film >tles by Tibor Kalman and Alexander Isley for the movie Something Wild (1986).
•  Influenced by music and fashion such as the bands Depeche Mode, Devo and Pet Shop Boys.

7-Hip Hop

Started as a fashion, graphic design, graffi> art and dance accompaniment to rap music in 1970’s.

Grid Approaches

1-De S>jil

•  In 1917 several Dutch ar>sts including “Theo Van Doesburg” and “Piet Mondrian”, perceived the use of a grid as a way to find universal harmony aTer world war I.
•  They believed that unemo>onal use of lines, common shapes and the colors red, yellow and blue would usher in a new utopian sprit of coopera>on.
•  De S>jil means “the style”.
•  “Le Corbusier” influenced the style and by 1960’s, a modular design named aTer him dominated the front pages layout of newspapers with horizontal orienta>on.

2- Bauhaus

•  In 1919 , a workshop was conducted in Germany under this name , which means “ To Build- Houses”.
•  It emphasis on useful, simple, and clearly defined forms.
•  Designers :Paul Klee- Laszlo Moholy Nagy- Gyorgy Kepes who inspired Saul Bass.

All Copyright Reserved By Mariam Elias

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